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Last updated: 31st October 2019

BLUE ECONOMY –DEVELOPMENT OF SEA RESOURCES FOR BANGLADESH

BLUE ECONOMY –DEVELOPMENT OF SEA RESOURCES FOR BANGLADESH

                                                      ---Rear Admiral Md. Khurshed Alam (Retd.)

Oceans cover 72% of the surface of our blue planet and constitute more than 95% of the biosphere. Life originated in the oceans and they continue to support all life today by generating oxygen, absorbing carbon dioxide, recycling nutrients and regulating global climate and temperature. Oceans provide a substantial portion of the global population with food and livelihoods and are the means of transport for 80% of global trade1. Throughout and subsequent to the Rio +20 process there has been a growing appreciation that the world’s Oceans and Seas require more in depth attention and coordinated action. This has been reflected in various initiatives inter alia the UNDESA expert group meeting on Oceans, Seas and Sustainable Development, the work of the Global Ocean Commission, the Global Partnership for Oceans and the prominence given to oceans and seas in the UN Action Agenda.  Healthy oceans are essential for global food security, livelihoods and economic growth.The world faces one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century: how to feed 9 billion people by 2050 in the face of climate change, economic and financial uncertainty and the growing competition for natural resources. These multiple challenges require an integrated response and an urgent transition of the world economy towards a sustainable, inclusive and resource efficient path.In 2012, the world formulated its Blue Economy strategy to harness the potential of oceans, seas and coasts for economic growth and jobs. With high unemployment levels and resource crunch, the coastal countries and Small Island Developing States formulated the blue economy strategy with the objective to promote smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and employment opportunities through utilization of the drivers of maritime economy such as seas, coasts and other maritime resources.

 

Framework for Sustainable Development

The Blue Economy conceptualises oceans and seas as “Development Spaces” where spatial planning integrates conservation, sustainable use of living resources, oil and mineral wealth extraction, bio-prospecting, sustainable energy production and marine transport. The Blue Economy approach is founded upon the assessment and incorporation of the real value of the natural (blue) capital into all aspects of economic activity (conceptualisation, planning, infrastructure development, trade, travel, renewable resource exploitation, energy production/consumption). Every country must take its share of the responsibility to protect the high seas, which cover 64 % of the surface of our oceans and constitute more than 90% of their volume. There is need to demonstrate measurable steps towards critical internationally agreed targets for fisheries, aquaculture, habitat protection and pollution reduction. It should also highlight the need to address the next frontiers of successful integrated approaches that include public-private partners, secure financing and catalyze good ocean governance while reconciling tensions and balancing priorities between;

 

i. Balancing Growth and Conservation

Governments, policy makers and international institutions keen to boost food security and eradicate poverty face a careful balancing act between conservation and growth. While fisheries and aquaculture generate considerable social and economic benefits for hundreds of millions of people around the world, and have the potential to increase their contribution to human well-being and growth, sustainable development, based on the pillars of ecological, social and economic sustainability, entails reconciling several intersecting agendas. There is also a need to link institutions that deal directly or indirectly with ocean issues across spatial and jurisdictional scales in ways that are efficient and effective, avoiding duplications and conflicts. National governments can play a key role in addressing these challenges, acting in their own and in concert with others through international treaties including National/Regional Fisheries Management Organizations and other regional mechanisms such as the Regional Seas Programme of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

ii. Balancing private sector growth and equitable benefits for communities

Globally, fish provide about 3 billion people with almost 20 percent of their average per capita intake of animal protein. Over 90% of small-scale fisheries come primarily from developing countries. In some countries, fish accounts for more than 50 percent of the animal protein intake. While governments can create legal, regulatory and policy frameworks and incentives, it is the private sector that is the main driver of economic growth through investment and entrepreneurial initiatives which range from global billion-dollar corporations that are vertically integrated to small-scale fishers. Strong momentum exists to reshape the context in which the private sector, independently of its scale, currently operates in order to ensure sustainable growth with equitable benefits for communities. In the Rio+20 outcome documents, The Future We Want, members of the international community agreed to "encourage the private sector to contribute to decent work for all and job creation for both women and men, and particularly for the youth, including through partnerships with small and medium enterprises as well as cooperatives.These objectives require policies that create incentives for producers and consumers to adopt sustainable practices and behavior. These principles for private sector growth and equitable benefits are also enshrined in a number or internationally adopted instruments developed to guide policy makers in decision-making on development in fisheries, namely the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, the Right to Food Guidelines, the Voluntary Guidelines for the Responsible Governance of Land, Fisheries and Forestry in the Context of National Food Security and the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries.

 

iii. Uniting EEZ and Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ)

There are a number of common issues that have an impact in EEZs and in the high seas in regard to resource use and conservation. From small-scale artisanal fisheries to large-scale industrial fisheries, and whether in national waters or ABNJ, the related issues of who has the right to exploit the fishery's and marine genetic resources and the nature of that right are a key part of the sustainable management of the resource. Marine pollution includes, but is not limited to, plastics, metals, glass, concrete and other construction materials, paper, polystyrene, rubber, rope, textiles and hazardous materials, such as  munitions, asbestos and medical waste. Marine debris may result from activities on land or at sea and is a complex cultural and multi-sectoral problem that exacts tremendous ecological, economic, and social costs around the globe.

 

The Blue Economy – Opportunities

Blue Economy offers a suite of opportunities for sustainable, clean, equitable blue growth in both traditional and emerging sectors;

 

Shipping and Port Facilities- 80 percent of global trade by volume, and over 70 per cent by value, is carried by sea and handled by ports worldwide. For developing countries, on a national basis, these percentages are typically higher. World seaborne trade grew by 4% in 2011, to 10.7 billion tonnes by 20172and container traffic is projected to triple by 20303. Coastal countries need to position themselves in terms of facilities and capacities to cater for this growing trade and optimise their benefits. Shipping is the safest, most secure, most efficient and most environmentally sound means of bulk transportation – with declining rates of accidents, terrorist incidents, improving turnaround of ships and significant reductions in discharges to sea or emissions to air. Much of these advances have been made possible as a result of IMO’s regulations, industry initiatives and technological developments; by helping to build technical maritime capacity in developing countries, where some 70%-75% of the world’s merchant fleet is now registered.

 

Fisheries – The world has elevated recognition of the essential role of fisheries and aquaculture for food security and nutrition in the context of climate change and employment of millions of people, many of whom struggle to maintain reasonable livelihoods, especially in the developing world. Total fish production in 2016 reached an all-time high of 171 million tonnes, of which 88 percent was utilized for direct human consumption, thanks to relatively stable capture fisheries production, reduced wastage and continued aquaculture growth. This production resulted in a record-high per capita consumption of 20.3 kg in 2016. The sector’s contribution to economic growth and the fight against poverty is growing. Strengthened demand and higher prices increased the value of global fish exports in 2017 to USD 152 billion, 54 percent originating from developing countries4. The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offer a unique, transformative and integrative approach to shift the world on to a sustainable and resilient path that leaves no one behind. Food and agriculture are key to achieving the entire set of SDGs, and many SDGs are directly relevant to fisheries and aquaculture, in particular SDG 14 (Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development).Human activity has directly and markedly reduced ocean productivity; additional deficits may be due to climate change increasing ocean stratification and reducing nutrient mixing in the open seas. Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and LME assessments show significant warming trends from which model projections 2040-2060 forecast a steady decline in ocean productivity5. The implementation of sound management measures brings the promise of increased sustainable catches, lower energy utilization and costs; thereby securing livelihoods and enhancing food security.

 

Aquaculture- Aquaculture is the fastest growing global food sector now providing 47% of the fish for human consumption Global fish production peaked at about 171 million tonnes in 2016. The total first sale value of fisheries and aquaculture production in 2016 was estimated at USD 362 billion, of which USD 232 billion was from aquaculture production6. Between 1961 and 2016, the average annual increase in global food fish consumption (3.2 percent) outpaced population growth (1.6 percent) and exceeded that of meat from all terrestrial animals combined (2.8 percent). In per capita terms, food fish consumption grew from 9.0 kg in 1961 to 20.2 kg in 2015, at an average rate of about 1.5 percent per year. In 2015, fish accounted for about 17 percent of animal protein consumed by the global population. Despite their relatively low levels of fish consumption, people in developing countries have a higher share of fish protein in their diets than those in developed countries. Global capture fisheries production was 90.9 million tonnes in 2016, a small decrease in comparison to the two previous years7. Aquaculture with fed species, if not managed properly, can impact biodiversity and ecosystem functions through excessive nutrient release, chemical pollution and the escape of farmed species and diseases into the natural environment. Aquaculture under the Blue Economy will incorporate the value of the natural capital in its development, respecting ecological parameters throughout the cycle of production, creating sustainable, decent employment and offering high value commodities for export.

 

Tourism- Marine and coastal tourism is of key importance to many developing countries. Tourism is a major global industry; International tourist arrivals grew 7.0% in 2017, the highest increase since the 2009 global economic crisis and well above UNWTO’s longterm forecast of 3.8% per year for the period 2010 to 2020. A total of 1,326 million international tourist arrivals were recorded in destinations around the world, some 86 million more than in 2016.In addition to the US$ 1,340 billion in tourism receipts earned in the destinations (the travel item of the Balance of Payments), international tourism generated another US$ 240 billion from international passenger transport services rendered to non-residents8.Total exports from international tourismtherefore reach US$ 1.6 trillion, or US$ 4 billion a day on average. As a worldwide export category, tourism ranks third after chemicals and fuels and ahead of automotive products. In many developing countries, tourism is the top export category9. Higher education courses need to deliver a solid grounding in the specific skills needed to maintain and increase market share in a discerning and competitive global market.

 

Energy- In 2018 offshore fields accounted for more than 33% of worldwide crude oil production and this is projected to rise to 34% in 202510 and higher subsequently, as almost half the remaining recoverable conventional oil is estimated to be in offshore fields  - a quarter of that in deep water11. While offshore oil production has been relatively stable since 2000, natural gas output from offshore fields has risen by more than 50% over the same period. Offshore electricity generation, mainly from wind, has increased rapidly in recent years.Offshore wind is a rising force, but remains for the moment a relatively marginal one at 0.2% of global electricity generation; wind and other marine technologies face stiff competition from a range of onshore options, including other low-carbon sources of generation. Deep water oil drilling is not new, but market pressures are making the exploration for and tapping of evermore remote reserves cost effective, bringing the most isolated areas under consideration. Methane hydrates, a potentially enormous source of hydrocarbons, are also being explored and tapped from the seabed. Oil will remain the dominant energy source for many decades to come but the Ocean offers enormous potential for the generation of renewable energy – wind, wave, tidal, biomass, and thermal conversion and salinity gradients.  Of these the offshore wind energy industry is the most developed of the ocean based energy sources. Global installed capacity was only a little over 6 GW in 2012 but this is set to quadruple by 2014 and relatively conservative estimates suggest this could grow to 175 GW by 203512.

 

Biotechnology and marine genetic resources- Biotechnologymarket size will reach USD 775.20 billion by 202413. Rising prevalence of chronic diseases have increased the demand for innovations similar to DNA sequencing, micro assays and recombinant DNA technologies to develop therapeutic solutions. Food scarcity in highly populated countries of India and China have resulted in urgent need for high yielding crop varieties through agricultural technologies. Researchers across the globe are developing GM crops to address the concern of limited land availability, inconsistent rainfall and pest attacks and produce high yielding crops that can sufficiently feed the growing population. Marine biotech has the potential to address a suite of global challenges such as sustainable food supplies, human health, energy security and environmental remediation. Marine genetic resources like bacteria are a rich source of potential drugs. In 2017 there were over 36 marine derived drugs in clinical development, including 15 for the treatment of cancer. One area where marine biotech may make a critical contribution is the development of new antibiotics14. The potential scope is enormous, by 2017 more than 14,000 novel chemicals had been identified by marine bio prospecting and 300 patents registered on marine natural products15. The unexplored and understudied nature of much of the underwater world means that the capacity of marine organisms other than fish and shellfish to provide inputs to the blue economy is only just beginning to be appreciated, partly through new gene sequencing technologies for living organisms. There have already been successes. The anti-viral drugs Zovirax and Acyclovir were obtained from nucleosides isolated from Caribbean sponges. Yondelis, developed from small soft-bodied marine animals was the first drug of marine origin to fight cancer. In the next stage, around 20-25 years from now and subject to technological breakthroughs, the blue biotechnology sector could become a provider of mass-market products, together with a range of high added value specialised products.

 

Submarine mining-The world is gearing up for the exploration and exploitation of mineral deposits on and beneath the sea floor. Industry, due to rising commodity prices, is turning its attention to the potential riches of polymetallic nodules, cobalt crusts and massive sulphide deposits; the latter a source of rare earth elements, such as yttrium, dysprosium and terbium, important in new ICT hardware and renewable energy technologies. Commercial interest is particularly strong in polymetallic nodules and in seafloor massive sulphides. The International Seabed Authority has developed the Mining Code regulations16 to meet these changing circumstances and has commenced issuing licenses for the exploration of the international sea floor. Coastal countries need to prepare themselves to ensure they realise optimal benefits from resources in their own EEZs and likewise that their concerns are incorporated into the measures to manage the coming race for the riches of the seabed.  The exploitation and mining of minerals, other than sand and gravel, from the sea have just started. By 2020, 5% of the world's minerals, including cobalt, copper and zinc could come from the ocean floors. This could rise to 10% by 2030. Global annual turnover of marine mineral mining can be expected to grow from virtually nothing to €5 billion in the next 10 years and up to €10 billion by 2030. It may also become economically feasible to extract dissolved minerals, such as boron or lithium, from seawater. The most promising deposits are found in metallic sulphides which emerge from hydrothermal ore deposits (such as 'black smokers') in volcanically active zones. The temperatures and pressures in these regions are extreme and the impact of disturbance on these hot spots of marine biodiversity, which under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) should be protected, is largely unknown. However there are opportunities outside jurisdictional marine areas. In these areas, the International Seabed Authority (ISA) is responsible for organizing and controlling activities, including monitoring all mineral-related activities. Their continued competitiveness depends on access to finance in an inherently risky market, targeted research and development in extraction techniques, the ability to obtain licences in international waters and robust measures to avoid harming unique ecosystems.

 

Charting a new course for Bangladesh with the resources of the Blue Sea

The objective of the Blue economy initiative – the maritime pillar of the future strategy – is to promote smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and employment opportunities in Bangladesh’s maritime economic activities in the short, medium and long-term time frames. The Blue economy initiative specifically aims to promote synergies and foster framework conditions that support specific maritime economic activities and their value chains. The extensive review and analysis of Blue Growth potential has confirmed the potential of the Blue Economy as an untapped resource. To realise the necessary international cooperation and support to elevate the Blue Economy to the international sustainable development agenda17, Bangladesh amongst the coastal countries has targeted the process leading up to the first International Workshop on Blue Economy in 2014 and then second one  2017in Dhaka.

Full development and endorsement of the proposals by the Government constituted  the next step in securing international momentum for, and acceptance of, the Blue Economy as an approach distinct from, but mutually supportive with, the general economy.Hon’ble Prime Minister emphasised in the workshop that that Blue Economy could play an important role in the economic upliftment of the country in the context of poverty alleviation, ensuring food and nutrition security, combating climate change impacts. Underlining Blue Economy as a window of opportunity for development, the Prime Minister expressed her resolve to turn the Bay of Bengal to a hub of economic development and prosperity; and observed that marine resources and services could significantly contribute to development of potential sectors. She, however, identified the lack of skilled human resource, institutions and technology as key challenge for Bangladesh to effectively utilize the marine resources. She also maintained that Bangladesh had already accorded priority to fishery, maritime transportation, ship-recycling, ship building, and coastal tourism considering their huge potential. She re-affirmed Bangladesh’s commitment to conservation and balanced development of natural resources keeping integrity of environmental and bio-diversity aspects while pursuing development for the people of the country.

 

The workshops recognised blue economy as striving for attainment of sustainable development, taking into account advantages and strategies of managing the sea resources. It highlighted the importance of engagement on: increasing sustainable fishing capacity and creating alternative job opportunities; promoting sustainable management of small-scale marine fisheries; supporting artisanal communities’ access to information, technology, finance, regulation and governance processes with a view to securing them year-round livelihood from alternate sources; enhancing capture fisheries’ share  in fish production through protecting/restoring critical habitats; encouraging private sector investments in coastal mariculture; collaborating among international community to end overfishing, effectively regulating harvesting and ending illegal-unreported-unregulated (IUU) fishing and destructive fishing practices; and supporting the countries-in-need on implementation of their science-based management plans towards restoration of fish stocks to sustainable yield level; strengthening regional governance/ institutions in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (ABNJ) management.

 

Experience of innovative (national) undertakings e.g. Delta Plan2100 of Bangladesh18also had coastal and marine sector related elements.  It was understood that while there is substantial energy potential to harness from traditional and emerging marine sources19 in sustainable manner, in so doing, existing sub-regional, regional and global arrangements would also need to weigh and address the issues related to resource governance, equitable sharing of benefits, access to technology and finance by the countries. Consequently, capacity-building needs to be approached and planned in regard to adequate development of governance and institutional framework(s), effective legislative framework, academic and research institutions, managerial–technical–technological capabilities and qualified, comparable skills (in existing and emerging streams). Partnership(s) among and between stakeholders – within and across countries and oceans and seas and international systems - is critical in facilitating greater flow of expertise, finance, capacity to effectively close gaps e.g. support effective participation of those States in regional fisheries management and other exploitation techniques required for non-living sea resources as also ensuring freedom of navigation. To-date, UNCLOS provides the most widely accepted legal instrument in governance of all aspects of oceans and seas, including marine resources. It was additionally underlined that the existing regional and international regimes and arrangements could further complement the global efforts and objectives towards conservation and sustainable use of oceans and seas and their resources by the State parties.

 

 Development of Blue Economyin Bangladesh

The Blue economy approach emphasized that ideas, principles, norms of Blue Economy lend significant contribution towards eradication of poverty, contributing to food and nutrition security, mitigation and adaptation of climate change and generation of sustainable and inclusive livelihoods. Thus Blue Economy requires a balanced approach between conservation, development and utilization of marine and coastal eco-systems, all oceanic resources and services with a view to enhancing their value and generates decent employment, secure productive marine economy and healthy marine eco-systems. It is needless to say that for most developing States particularly for Bangladesh, making transition to Blue Economy would entail fundamental and systemic changes in their policy-regulatory–management–governance framework(s) and identification of various maritime economic functions. Even the World Bank explicitly stated that the blue economy includes established ocean industries, such as fisheries, tourism and marine transport, as well as new and emerging activities such as offshore renewable energy, aquaculture, seabed extractive activities and marine biotechnology and bioprospecting20. The World Bank argues that the potential to develop a blue economy is limited by three main challenges. Current economic activities and trends that exploit the ocean unsustainably need to be replaced by altered or even new economic practices and behaviour. For this, resistance of established interest must be overcome and – the second challenge – is necessary to invest in human capital. Individuals need to be trained to be able to work in the blue economy, thereby harnessing the employment and development benefits of investing in innovative blue economy sectors.

 

Sectors of Blue Economy-Twenty six maritime economic functions have been identified from among the fishery, maritime trade and shipping, energy, tourism, coastal protection, maritime safety and surveillance for development of blue economy in Bangladesh. The following summarises maritime economic activities that have been identified and must be developed to harness the benefits of the blue economy;

 

Maritime trade and shipping

Shipping:

International shipping contributes to the three pillars of sustainable development facilitates global commerce, the creation of wealth and prosperity among nations and peoples, creating a wide variety of jobs on board ships and ashore, with direct and indirect beneficial impacts on the livelihoods of others. In comparison to other transport modes, it provides the most environmentally sound and energy-efficient means of moving huge quantities of cargoes and people. The global regulatory framework is provided by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which has adopted 52 treaties regulating ship design and operation. The most important of them – concerning the safety of life at sea and the protection of the environment – today applies on 99% of the world’s merchant fleet.

 

More than 90% of the Bangladesh’s external freight trade is seaborne – and on-going globalization has made this flow ever more important. The long coastline and age old tradition of sea navigation in Bangladesh have led to a relatively strong development of maritime services that support the sea trade and sea transport function (ranging from shipping agents, freight forwarders, and insurance to classification and inspection, and maritime education in the Marine Academies/Dockyards/Shipyards/ Nautical Institutes etc.). Presently Bangladesh’s value of export and import stands at about USD 78 billion (2017-18) and are carried by almost 3000 foreign ships visiting our ports21. Against our import and export value, during last ten years, importers, exporters and buyers has paid USD 95 billion as freight and related chargesonly toforeign shipping companies, air lines and freight operators to carry goods in and out of Bangladesh. There are only 42 registered (2018) Bangladeshi merchant ships which are not sufficient to carry even a fraction of our cargo.  Considering the average import growth rate of 15.79% (last 10 years) and export growth rate of 15.43% (last 10 years), projected freight value for next ten years would be around USD 435 billion. In order to retain parts of the USD 400 billion in the country, over the ten years, Bangladesh must provide enough incentives to local shipping companies to add more ships to the existing fleet, freight operators to establish freight services including container liner services to carry goods to/from Bangladesh using our own as well as chartered ships and freighters.

 

Coastalshipping/Feeder services

It means national and international freight transport within and to/from neighbouring countries with medium sized ships. Coastal shipping forms an important means of transport within most of the transport system and this figure will be higher for Bangladesh having extended coastlines along the rim of the Bay of Bengal. It caters to the transport needs of economies by providing maritime point-to-point transport of all kinds of commodities; provides the maritime link that connects the road network across the seas; serves as feeder transport distributing container flows from the major seaports hubs to smaller ports, or other land locked countries. For the long term annual growth expected in the range of 5-6 percent for the coming decade, coastal shipping from India, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Myanmar  ports could play as  a game changer in the feeder services. Such transshipment at Singapore, Kelang, Colombo and other ports of the region would be cost effective, save time and increase employment opportunities. So far we have only signed agreement for coastal shipping with India and this is operating.

 

Sea ports:

Infrastructure like ports can be used by different economic activities and is a fine example of synergy. It goes without saying that ports are important crystallization points for maritime economic activities: whether cruise shipping, coastal shipping, international shipping, passenger ferries, fishing, marine mineral mining, oil drilling, offshore or maritime monitoring, they all require ports and related infrastructure. There are strong synergies with international shipping, which not only provides the overseas cargo, but also shapes the main ports. Port planning needs to be addressed in a wider sense - by identifying the main functionalities of ports and by building whole value chains around them – important synergies emerge here in terms of supply industry as well as tourism. Statistics reveals that economy of Bangladesh is heavily dependent on international trade where maritime ports play the key role of transporting 94% of our foreign trade. Bangladesh must enhance the existing handling and berth  capacities of ports like Chittagong and Mongla and develop deep sea ports with more capabilities and modern handling equipment in Matarbari and Payra to cater for increased trade and commerce. Establishment of seaports can significantly reduce export lead times and earn steady flow of revenue for the country.

 

Passenger ferry services

Transporting passengers on fixed sea routes, sometimes this is combined with Ro Ro transport. Passenger ferries provide synergies as well while inland shipping is another essential component of the chain. During 2018 about 223 million passengers and 50 million mt of cargoes were transported through inland/coastal networks leaving sufficient scope for further investment and expansion around the coastal belt.

 

Inland waterway transport

Bangladesh has one of the largest inland water transport network in the world covering 24,000 km long with 1000 landing points and 21 inland river ports. Pangoan Inland container terminal with 55,000 sq m of container yards, 2400 TEUs handling capacity and with two jetties have already been commissioned since Nov 2013. Chittagong Port handles about 3 million TEUs annually and 80% of then is bound for Dhaka and only 10% arrive Dhaka by rail. Now container can be carried by inland routes at a much cheaper cost. Bangladesh can raise its GDP by 1% while foreign trade by 20% if the IWT logistics system is made efficient and competitive according to Asian development bank report. There are more than 10,000 inland vessels, 75 coastal vessels and about 6500 inland ships registered with department of shipping and almost all these vessels are built inside Bangladesh. The major navigation routes in Bangladesh are cantered at some important river ports such as Dhaka, Narayanganj, Chandpur, Bhairab, Barisal, Chittagong and Khulna. The connectivity of these ports especially in waterways is important for the economy. So the maintenance of the navigability of the rivers of the country should take priority which will in turn generate jobs, and is less expensive than road links.

 

Shipbuilding

Finally, the shipbuilding industry contributes to this function by providing the necessary equipment, which does not only cover ships but also the marine equipment in which our own industries can play an important role. There are more than 300 shipyards and workshops in Bangladesh and almost 100% requirement of inland vessels, fast patrol boats, dredging barges, passenger vessels, landing craft, tug, supply barges, deck loading barges, speed boat, cargo coasters, troop carrying vessels, hydrographic survey vessels, survey boat, pilot boats, water taxiand pontoons are being built by these yards. Ship building yards are constructing 10,000 DWT Sea going ships for export and are expected to upgrade their capacity to 25000 DWT. Shipbuilding industry not only earns foreign exchange but also saves it where as in road and rail transportation about 100% transport vehicles/rolling  stocks are imported from abroad.  It should be promoted and nurtured in all possible ways, including its horizontally and vertically linked businesses, and given opportunities and incentives for growth and expansion. Other similar manufacturing and engineering fronts including ship repairing facilities should also be seriously explored.

Ship recycling industries- During 2017, about7000+ ships were scrapped, which is the highest number in six years and Bangladesh ranked 1st considering number of ships. It provides about 70-75% scrap steel as raw material for Steel and Re-rolling mills, saving lot of foreign currency. This industry not only met the growing needs of furniture, household fittings of all classes, boilers, lifesaving boats, generators etc. but also employment opportunities. There are about 125 ship breaking yards with annual turnover of about USD 2.4 billion.  Ship recycling must be turned into modern industry with all eco- friendly infrastructure and compliance of international convention.

 

Food and livelihood 

Fishery:

There are about 475 species of fish found in our EEZ compared to 250 species on land. Fish still provides the much needed protein needs of our people. About 70,000 artisanal mechanized and non-mechanized wooden boats and about 250 industrial steel body trawlers are engaged in fishing in the coastal waters upto 60 km (within 40m depth) from our coastline having very limited capability in catching pelagic fishing-shoals closer to surface. A considerable amount of fish are salted and dried, mainly for human consumption. Incidentally, the use of dried fish as a source of fishmeal is gradually increasing due to intensification of fish and poultry farming. Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha)is the largest and single most valuable species with annual catch of over 4,96,417 mt and generates employment and income for 2.5 million people valued at $US 1.3 billion per year (BOBLME 2012, Hossain et al. 2014). At present 50-60% of global hilsa catch takes place in the coastal and marine waters of Bangladesh, 20-25% in Myanmar, 15-20% in India and the remaining 5-10% in other countries. A total of over 2,45,117mt shrimpscultured inland and caught from Bay of Bengal  during 2017 (DoF 2017), most of which directly go to the processing plant and end up in the markets of USA, EU and Japan. Over the last 10-15 years, live giant mud crab (Scylla serrata) and estuarine eel (Muraenesox bagio) have been exported to East Asian countries. Less than 20% exported live crab come from crab fattening by the marginal farmers of Satkhira, Bagerhat and Cox’s Bazar coasts. Moreover, the harvest of young and undersized sharks and rays are dried, while the large sharks are dumped overboard after removing their fins and some other body parts. The majority of phaisa (Setipinna phasa) caught in the coast are used to make fermented fish product.

 

However, there are hardly any capabilities of catching demersal fishes below 50 m depth of water. Long lines fishing are totally absent in deep waters. In the benthic zone lowest level of the ocean-crustaceans-shrimp and lobster are caught in limited quantities but fishes close to sea bottom at about 150-550m depth cannot be caught along with cephalopod-octopus and squid industrial fishing. In the Bay of Bengal 8 million tons of fish are caught by other countries where Bangladesh’s share is only 93,000 tons (2017). There is tremendous scope for increasing marine catch introducing technology and long line, incentives for bigger ocean going trawler, huge scope for higher end industry in venturing beyond 60 km coastline. A calculated proportion of the bottom trawls have already been converted to mid-water trawls in order to lessen pressure on the demersal fish stocks, to reduce destruction of sea-bottom habitats, and to exploit the mid-water fish stocks. A temporary ban on fishing in a certain period of the year has been imposed for several years now to allow breeding and recruitment of important fishes, specifically Hilsa. 

Several Marine Protected Areas (MPA) have also been declared to maintain marine biodiversity and fish stocks at sustainable levels. Destructive fishing methods and gear (e.g., set bag net) have been completely banned from operation. Vessel Tracking and Monitoring System (VTMS) with satellite communication links are going to be installed soon in fishing vessels in phases, in order to monitor and control their manoeuvre at sea for various management purposes. In the environment sector, several Ecologically Critical Areas (ECA) have been enforced in various coastal ecosystems to maintain critical habitats, biodiversity, marine turtle breeding and conservation, and mangrove restoration and growth

Bangladesh must now look for other important uses of fish parts etc. as is done in other countries. Fish oil could be used for fat liquoring of leather, tempering of metals, batching of jute and insecticidal soaps, paints and varnishes, and in pharmaceutical products. Fish liver oil could be used for treatment of Vitamin A & B deficiency diseases, pharmaceuticals applications and animal feed formulations, fish liver residue and fish ensilage may be mixed with fishmeal, fish maws from eel and catfish can be turned into isinglass into thin strips of sheets 1/8 to ¼ thickness, can be used as clarifying agent for wine, beer and vinegar etc. Fish hydrolysates and peptone enhances nutritional value of foods, and can be used as media for culturing terrestrial and marine bacteria. Some of the important applications of chitin/chitosan, and extract from prawn waste are in textiles sizing and dyeing of cotton, wool, synthetic fabrics, paper, treatment of wounds and hyper acidity etc,burnt spine of stingray with vinegar relieves toothache. Red algae found in Sunderban as food, agar-preservation of cooked fish and meat, water proof paper, ice cream, jelly ,candy ,bread and biscuits,  algin and alginates- from brown marine algae uses in agar and sargassum, brown algae- calcium alginate used in surgical dressing to reduce bleeding, jellyfish, snails, sea cucumbers and horse crabs produce various drugs, sponges- antibiotic capabilities, pearl bearing oysters good for culture , and mussels are edible, artemia nauplii- for aquatic animals, artemia cysts excellent live food ,hatcheries and for growing larvea of crustaceans , seaweeds and sea grass-benthic marine and brackish water can be used for food, iodine, fodder, fertilizer, cosmetic and pharmaceuticals products.

 

Mari culture is and will increasingly become an important producer of aquatic food in coastal and deeper waters, as well as a source of employment and income for many coastal communities. Well-planned and -managed mariculture can also contribute positively to coastal environmental integrity. Its future development will have to take place in the coastal waters of the Bay, with increasing pressure on coastal resources caused by rising populations, and increasing competition for resources. Thus, considerable attention will be necessary to improve the environmental management of aquaculture through environmentally sound technology and better management, supported by effective policy and planning strategies and legislation.The experience in coastal resource management shows that it is important to engage the collaboration of the local government units and other “on-the-ground” institutions, such as NGOs and people’s organizations, to be able to introduce effectively any social and technological interventions to target community-beneficiaries. However, before a fruitful collaboration among these institutions could be attained, there is a need to build their capacities, and those of the beneficiaries, for the vital roles that they play in the implementation of livelihood projects and environmental management programs. Future development prospects of aquaculture appear promising. Well-managed coastal aquaculture and mariculture offer significant scope for green growth and employment opportunities for coastal communities at low levels of CO2 emissions when compared to other protein production systems.  Extracting wild natural resources (essentially fish) for animal consumption could be done and used by agriculture and aquaculture. The momentum of the fast increasing aquaculture (by 160% over last decade) and with its huge success in inland aquaculture, Bangladesh should replicate such expertise in sea aquaculture for seaweed, pearl and oyster. Strengthening regional fisheries bodies, national fisheries management agencies, fishing community and fish workers organizations and private sector associations is critical to sustainable and equitable use of marine resources through aquaculture. It’s not going to be easy to introduce mariculture but with constant training, technology and  feed depending on the species selected, specific project to build capacity with appropriate technology for the development of the certain species may be undertaken with the interested fisher folk in appropriate coastal waters such as grouper, millet, sea bass and abalone etc.

 

Marine aquatic products

Marine aquatic products consist of the farming of marine aquatic organisms, mainly for human consumption and all the associated primary processing activities. While cultivation of aquatic plants and algae is still to be evolved, farming of aquatic animals composed of three major sub-sectors: marine shellfish farming (e.g. oysters and mussels), marine finfish farming and freshwater finfish farming (trout, carp, eel, etc.) could be considered for cultivation. Many people living in the rural areas of developing countries depend on aquatic resources for their food and livelihood. For the past two decades, the Aquaculture has been working with fishing communities and people’s organizations, business sector, local government units, national government agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs) and academic and other research institutions to promote the efficient conservation, management and sustainable development of aquatic resources so that these may continue to serve the needs of the people today and tomorrow. Using the lessons learned from those two decades of multi-sectoral and inter-disciplinary collaborations, projects can be taken to hasten the transfer to and adoption by coastal villagers of appropriate technologies that would enhance the productivity of aquatic resources and at the same time safeguard the fragile balance of the aquatic ecology.

 

Algae extracts are used in cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical markets (macro algae and micro algae). There are already several products on the market such as PUFA’s (poly unsaturated fatty acids) like omega-3 and omega-6, but also antioxidants. Macro algae producers can target the human food market (already happening in Asia) but also the animal feed market. Some interviewees believe that macro algae will be a valuable source of proteins for human and animal consumption. Algae aquaculture can contribute to advances in fish medications and contribute to shelf life improvements achieved through marine bacteriological progress.

 

Marine Biotechnology

It is about unravelling the potential of the biodiversity of a specific earth compartment for the benefit of the rest of the economy. The unexplored and understudied nature of much of the underwater world means that the capacity of marine organisms other than fish and shellfish to provide inputs to the blue economy is only just beginning to be appreciated, partly through new gene sequencing technologies for living organisms. Exploration of the sea biodiversity is now helping us understand for example how organisms that can withstand extremes of temperature and pressure and grow without light could be used to develop new industrial enzymes or pharmaceuticals. It can provide bio-sourced products such as coating with anti-fouling or anticorrosive properties for maritime transport and shipbuilding. Blue biotechnology can also contribute to the development of specific biopolymers and bio membranes that improve the overall efficiency of the desalination process. Bio stimulation can also be used to protect natural habitats by fostering bioremediation after important pollutions (as for the Exxon Valdez oil spill when bacteria were stimulated to degrade hydrocarbons). Another example is bioremediation in case of oil spills. A conclusion from this example is that the maritime sector as a whole has strong interest in promoting new (bio-) technologies, cross-cutting services and suppliers that can benefit more than one sector – and bring about advantages that cannot always be foreseen. Marine biotechnology and industries based on biotechnology research are long overdue. Universities and research institutions should be encouraged and given funding & logistics for opening up this promising field for future industrial growth

 

Energy

 

Oil and gas

The upstream offshore oil and gas value chain consists of exploration (involving drilling rigs and research & specialised support ships), field development (building of platforms), production and exploitation. Downstream activities are refining and distribution to the consumer markets. Fossil fuels are those resources that can be extracted and processed in order to be used in various ways, especially in our energy supply that includes mostly natural gas and a potential new segment of oil at sea. Bangladesh is yet to assess the true potential of its offshore oil and gas prospects. Some 26 Tcf (trillion cubic feet) gas reserve has so far been discovered in Bangladesh, of which only about 1 Tcf is located in the offshore areas. Until 2014, 19 exploratory wells were drilled in the Bay of Bengal, resulting in only two gas discoveries, i.e. the Sangu and the Kutubdia, with small reserves. The Sangu reserves of 0.8 Tcf have already depleted, whereas the Kutubdia reserves 0.04 Tcf are yet to be developed. Moreover, the drilling of the Magnama (3.5 Tcf) and Hatia (1.0 Tcf) yet to produce any commercial volumes of hydrocarbons. Due to close proximity to the discovered gas fields of Myanmar, some Bangladeshi blocks are likely to have comparable geological structures and gas/oil prospects.

 

However, a logical plan is necessary to carry out multicline survey(using state of art technology) in Bay in order to identify potential oil and gas fields, and their reserves. A delay in the exploration may offset the opportunity of harnessing the oil and gas resources, especially those (if any) located on either side of the maritime boundary (India and Myanmar), because whoever drills first is likely to pull not only their fair share of gas and oil reserves but also from across the boundary. In fact, the country requires massive exploration and drilling activities to increase its overall gas output. In the future, oil and gas exploration and exploitation must be accomplished with full participation between public and private sectors to share data and information, monitoring, and best practices, as well as monitoring and assessment protocols and results. 

 

Sea salt production

Sea salt has been produced traditionally along the Cox’s Bazar coast of Bangladesh for generations. In a longer dry season, the salt farmers can get about 20 tons/ha production. The annual salt production in the Cox’s Bazar coastal segment of Bangladesh is 22MT, where the Samut Sakhon of Thailand produces 43MT. Most of the salt farms are small-scale, using manually operated local equipment and lease the land from landowners, or sometimes from the government on a yearly basis. Community-focused land leasing systems, sufficient credit facilities, use of mechanical equipment (water pump, leveler, etc.) and reliable weather forecasting can enhance salt production. Moreover, formation of salt farmer’s cooperatives can ensure bargaining power and maximize economic return (i.e., salt price) for their standard of living.

 

Ocean renewable energy

 Marine-based renewable energy such as wind, wave and tidal range and currents offers a significant potential to contribute to low-carbon energy supplies for regions with appropriate coastal features. Off-shore wind covers all activities related to the development and construction of wind parks in marine waters, and the exploitation of wind energy by generating electricity offshore. However, most suitable onshore locations for wind turbines need to be identified and the best (windiest) offshore sites have to be connected to the main transmission grid. Tidal energy, covering tidal range and tidal current, is the most advanced, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is based on the thermodynamic potential between the warmer upper water layer and the colder deeper water layer. Activities provide important synergies with ocean renewable energies, e.g. wave energy converters may help to attenuate wave attack and generate electricity. Marine-based renewable energy can provide alternative employment opportunities particularly for maritime communities who were formerly reliant on fisheries. Consistent long-term policies and targeted financial support from governments are needed if technical barriers and cost reductions are to be overcome. To implement this, incentives such as grants, subsidies and tax credits are required to encourage private investments in the large, expensive infrastructure that is required to move from small prototypes to pilot plants.

 

Blue energy (osmosis) and biomass

Osmotic energy is based on the salinity gradient between salt and fresh water. Nutrient loads from continents to oceans and the coastal zone have increased roughly three fold from pre-industrial levels, primarily from agricultural run-off and poorly or untreated sewage. Low levels of oxygen make it difficult for marine creatures to survive. Industrially produced nutrient fertilizers (nitrogen, phosphorus) are essential to global food security and have been the main driver of dramatically improved agricultural yields over the last sixty years to feed a growing population. At the same time, excess nutrients from inefficient use in farming and insufficient treatment of nutrients in wastewater, have made their way into rivers, aquifers, coastal areas and oceans, leading to degradation of marine ecosystems and groundwater at a global scale. Enhanced nutrient recovery and reuse would also help to ensure that phosphorus, with finite reserves, is increasingly recycled to maintain sufficient supplies to meet the long-term needs of human society.

 

Aggregates mining (sand, gravel, etc.)

 Beach material commonly known as sand varies in colour ranging from dark-brown, grey, black, light brown, golden to silvery white.  Several investigations have been carried out in the coastal region to find heavy materials in the sandy beaches of Bangladesh. Sands containing valuable heavy minerals are found intermittently over the length of a 250 km coastal belt from Patenga to Teknaf. The entire coastal belt has been explored with the discovery of 17 deposits of potentially valuable minerals such as zircon, rutile, ilmenite, leucoxene, kyanite, garnet, magnetite and monazite (Alam 2004). Proper extraction and commercialization of minerals from beach sand may enhance the growth of different industries such as welding electrodes, paper, glass, chemical and ceramic sectors in the country. So, by installing mineral extracting industries in the coastal region, it may be possible to create huge employment opportunities for the local community.

 

Marine genetic resource

Managed correctly marine genetic resource could be converted into jobs, medicine, and growth in the domestic biotechnology sector. The deep-sea environment is one of the least understood regions of the planet and we still have a fairly rudimentary understanding of the ecosystem services these environments support and we can start research for concretization of the technology for use of marine genetic resources.

 

Tourism

Coastal tourism:

Globally, coastal tourism is the largest market segment and represents 5 per cent of world GDP and contributes to 6-7 per cent of total employment. In 150 countries, it is one of five top export earners and in 60 it is the first. It is the main source of foreign exchange for one-half of Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Coastal tourism includes a) beach-based recreation and tourism, b) tourist activities in proximity to the sea, and c) nautical boating including yachting and marinas. Sustainable tourism can create new jobs and reduce poverty. Tourism is human-resource intensive. One job in the core industry creates one and a half additional jobs in the tourism-related economy. Increasing involvement of local communities in the value chain can contribute to the development of local economies and poverty reduction. The private sector must be mobilized to support sustainable tourism and needs access to financing for investing in greening practices.

 

Recreational water sports, yachting and marinas

Introduction of various water sports for recreational activities, construction and servicing of seaworthy pleasure boats and the required supporting infrastructure including marina ports could encourage growth of coastal tourism.

 

Cruise tourism

Tourism based on people travelling by small size cruise ship in among the coastal islands and tourist areas. Much of this growth is dependent upon the sector’s ability to develop sustainable business models, to invest in port infrastructure and to address a variety of security concerns. An ageing population and a larger share of educated citizens will lead to more demand for 'customized experiences'.

 

Coastal protection/Artificial islands/Greening coastal belts

 

Coastal protection:

Coastal protection is different from other sectors as it is not an economic function in itself, but rather a condition sine qua non for the use of coastal areas and for allowing other functions to flourish. Because of its specific nature coastal protection has been defined as a separate maritime function. Important external drivers affecting the performance of this subsector are: global warming, events of erosion and/or flooding, high value economic activities in coastal regions, economical performance. Urbanization, population and economic activities concentrated in deltas and coastal regions, continues. The longer term development will be a function from three main drivers of change: 1) sea level rise and related climate change conditions 2) demographic trends and 3) economy.

 

Artificial islands

To reduce the demographic pressure on land, Bangladesh should adopt appropriate strategy to turn the existing low tide elevations/unstable new islands of our internal water and territorial sea allowed by the UNCLOS 1982. Sustainability of existing 75 marine islands or newly created natural islands must be ensured through planting salt tolerant/mangrove plants. Development of agriculture on saline soils through improving existing crops must be adopted. Desalination of sea water for fresh water usage for agriculture, irrigation, commercial use for habitant and animals of marine/offshore islands could be considered.

 

Greening coastal belt/delta planning

This will help reduce wind pressure of cyclones and also solidification of new lands. Mangrove in the Sunderbans comprising of  577,040 hectares provide livelihood to about 7.5 million people with its timber, wood, boat building materials, rafts and garan for tanning nets, honey, wax  etc. The canals and creeks inside the mangrove also acts as spawning/breeding ground for many species. Mangrove afforestation in newly accreted intertidal areas has been going on for decades now.  Bangladesh is already working for delta planning and in the long run it will help sustain agriculture, river course and intrusion saline waters etc.

 

Human resource and spatial planning

Human resource:

Well-trained, skilled and educated human resources are the driving force of the development of an economy, who can participate in the globalization of business and the accompanying technological revolution. Dynamic and sustainable development is not possible without skilled work force. Having assessed the need of world market and local industry, appropriate courses on marine science/oceanography, ocean and coastal engineering, maritime education and trade are essential to be introduced at tertiary education system. A thrust in blue economic growth may come from a large army of skilled coastal and offshore engineers, navigators, merchant mariners, fisheries technologists, biotechnologists, etc. and in a variety of other professions. There are reportedly shortage of marine officers and rating worldwide and shortage escalating about 20% every year.  Philippines, China and India are supplying most of the officers to all the merchant ships around the globes. Even Myanmar and Sri Lanka are ranked ahead of India in terms of providing ratings. Bangladesh has enormous potential for seafaring job opportunities from its  private and public marine academies provided it can arrange on board practical training facilities for its would be seafarer and also can remain in the white list following STCW 95. Recently the Bangladesh Oceanographic Research Institute (BORI) and a Maritime University have also been established for coastal and oceanic research and human resource development.

 

Maritime safety and surveillance: Overall maritime safety and surveillance mechanism should be upgraded to improve the situational awareness of all activities at sea impacting on maritimeeconomic activities.

To conclude it must be easily said that the marine science community has given little attention to the role of the financial community in exploiting and managing the resources of the seas and oceans. Within the marine business community, investors have obviously been of great importance but systemic attention to their role in responsible ocean management is little. Policy makers at national and international levels should look to the financial sector seeking to involve them in a range of topics, from nature protection and social welfare to social entrepreneurshiptowards realising societal objectives.Any effort to build capacity or transfer of technology on Blue economy should consider how such efforts best fit the current circumstances and needs of the partner institutions. Technology transfer is traditionally understood as a commercial or trade-related process in the innovation chain involving the acquisition and use of technology and the knowledge and skills needed to operate it. A short summary of blue economy activities which can be developed in Bangladesh are enclosed for ready reference. A science-based approach is essential to the development of the Blue Economy; commencing with the initial assessment and critically the valuation of the blue capital at our disposal. This will provide a basis for informed decision-making and adaptive management. This major undertaking must be addressed and continually refined and upgraded in line with changing circumstances, evolving technologies and our increasing understanding; or the Blue Economy approach will founder. This underlines the importance of technical assistance, technology transfer and capacity building to the pursuit of sustainable development.

Blue Economymay be stimulated by putting the right ‘enablers’ in place which are prerequisites that have to be in place to create an environment open to innovation and growth. This includes research and education but also spatial planning. Additionally, Bangladesh need to remove barriers to create better conditions for innovation and maritime economy to develop. Existing funding instruments/mechanism are not good enough to support the development of Blue Economy. Lastly, we need to encourage partnerships between, public authorities and economic players, in order to foster scale effects and mutually reinforcing learning and investment and to explore market opportunities worldwide for the international dimension of the blue economy. With a view to improving food security, eradicating poverty and delivering shared prosperity, global leaders, ocean practitioners, scientists, and representatives from government, business, civil society, national and international organizations must come together to explore action-oriented partnerships, governance arrangements, investment frameworks and new financing vehicles to turn the tide not only on the health of Oceans but also how the resources of the sea could be used for economic emancipation.

 

References:

[1] UNCTAD, Review of Maritime Transport (2018).

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA),2018, FAO.

[5] IOC/UNESCO, IMO, FAO, UNDP. (2017).

[6] The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA), 2018, FAO.

[7] Ibid.

[8] UNWTO, 2018.

[9] Ibid.

[10] IEA (2017).

[11] Ibid.

[12] Op.cit.

[13] https://www.gminsights.com/request-sample/detail/784

[14] Hunt & Vincent (2015).

[15] Leary et al (2009).

[16] Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Polymetallic Sulphides in the Area (adopted 7 May 2010) and the Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Cobalt-Rich Crusts (adopted 27 July 2012).

[17] https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/

[18]  Bangladesh Planning Commission, http://www.plancomm.gov.bd/general-economics-division/

[19] Ibid.

[20]World Bank (2016) Blue Economy development Frameowrk. Growing the Blue Economy to Compbat Poverty and Accelerate Prosperity. April 2016, http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/446441473349079068/AMCOECC-Blue-Economy-Development-Framework.pdf

[21]. Export Promotion Bureau, Bangladesh.

 

 DEVELOPMENT OF BLUE ECONOMY FROM SEA RESOURCES

Estuarine fishes

Fishing & fish cultivation, post-harvest fish handling & processing

Marine fishes (Capture)

Demersal (bottom dwelling) fishes, pelagic (free swimming) fishes

Fisheries and other living resources

Shrimps, crabs, lobsters, mussels, etc.

Mariculture

Sea bass, Grey mullet,  Green back mullet, Pomfret, Hilsa , Crab breeding and farming-Asian green mussel, Indian oyster , Seaweeds, and Marine micro algae cultivation in cages and other enclosures/grow outs

Non living resources

Salt and brine, potable water by desalination, Fuel oil, gas and as other valuable minerals

Coastal tourism, and  marine sports

Cruise-ship, yacht, floating hotel and restaurant, surfing, diving, snorkeling, boating, sport fishing and other water sports etc

Shipping & port operations and use of ocean in maritime trade

Trade expansion, fleet expansion, port development, transit and transshipment, coastal shipping and improvement and use of riverine routes for containers etc

Forest resources development and Mangrove ecosystem

Mangrove forests, afforestation, canal and creeks for spawning, breeding and pearl cultivation

Ship building & ship recycling

Incentives to be provided. More compliant industries needed.

Renewable Energy development

Power generation from current, tide, wave and maritime wind; bio-gas and bio-fuel from marine alage

Land reclamation

Acceleration of char and island formation by engineering interventions

Biotechnology

Marine algae, various marine plants & animals as raw materials for pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries

Maritime professionals

Coastal zone planner & manager, coastal forest manager, marine fisheries manager, tourism manager, maritime lawyer, merchant marine, port manager, maritime trade analyst, shipping liner & entrepreneur, marine pollution & environment expert, marine conservationist, hydrographer, surveyor,  offshore engineer, naval architect, marine engineer,  aquaculture technologist, biotechnologist and hatchery technologist, remote sensing & optical,   marine scientist, marine biologist/ecologist, marine fisheries biologist, maritime meteorologist, climatologist, marine geologist, petroleum geologist, etc.

Marine Scientific Research

BORI should be strengthened with a research vessel

Maritime safety and Surveillance

Marine unconventional products and services

Maritime safety and Surveillance may be upgraded

Marine Business services

Marine R&D; general education and ocean literacy; and private partnership


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